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Treatment of gallstone disease

A gallstone disease (calculous cholecystitis, GSD) is the disease, leading to formation of stones in bile ducts and gallbladder as the result of metabolic disorder of bilirubin and\or cholesterol in the organism. The most widespread causes for development of the gallstone disease include the impaired fat metabolism, incorrect diet and dietary regime, liver disorder, inflammation of the gallbladder, biliary retention, sedentary and unhealthy lifestyle.


The causes, leading to the disease, can be divided with quite high degree of probability into the modifiable and non-modifiable. The modifiable (changeable) causes can include:

  • diet (food with high level of cholesterol and refined carbohydrates raise the level of cholesterol in the bile);
  • obesity (causes the increase of excretion and synthesis of cholesterol);
  • low-calorie diets (in 25% of cases, they are accompanied by the production of putty-like bile and formation of calculi);
  • starvation;
  • intestinal diseases;
  • dependence on the geographical area of residence;
  • intake of estrogens and fibrates (increases the lithogenic properties of the bile);
  • pregnancy.

The non-modifiable causes for development of diseases:

  • gender (women suffer from the disease 3-4 more often than men);
  • age (after turning 60-70, the level of cholesterol in the bile rapidly increases, and the probability of formation of calculi (stones) makes up 30-40%);
  • predisposition (if the relatives suffered from the gallstone disease, then the risk of development and progress of the disease  increases 2-4 times that says about presence of the gene of lithogenicity of the man);
  • ethnic peculiarities.


In most cases, it is developed without symptoms. In case of their manifestation, the obvious symptoms usually include the complaint about discomfort and sensation of pain in the right hypochondrium, related with the incorrect dietary structure and regime and accompanied by the bitter taste in the mouth during morning hours.

The gallstones do not cause pronounced discomfort among 60-80% of potential patients. If they are present, the clinic symptoms can be absent for long years.


A timely visit to the gastroenterologist is complicated by the fact that after the first colicky pain, the risk of their recurrence during the next year makes up only 50%.

At the early stages, the disease can be diagnosed upon the heterogeneity of the bile, detected during the sonographic examination (ultrasonography).


Depending on the stage of disease, the following recommendations may be given to the patient:

  • to adhere to the diet;
  • to lose weight slowly;
  • to undergo medication therapy;

The treatment of clinically pronounced gallstone disease aims to:

  • arrest gallstone colic;
  • prevent complications, associated with the gallstone disease in case of external symptoms of its manifestation;
  • to perform timely surgical intervention and remove the gallbladder and gallstones in case of onset of recurring gallstone colic;
  • block the recurrences of gallstone colic after the first onset.

The antispasmodic drugs may be applied for arresting the onset of gallstone colic. In case of absence of any improvements in the patient’s condition, his hospitalization in the surgical department is required.


The diagnosis and treatment of gallstone disease, pancreatitis, dyskinesia of bile ducts and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in Oxford Medical clinic are performed under the supervision of experienced certified specialists, using the advanced equipment.

The competent prevention and timely visit to the doctor will allow avoiding multiple unpleasant consequences and even the operation.


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